It was written on 1 June 2016. The law and practice in Spain change all the time. Our guides are updated as frequently as possible - typically every three years - but may be out of date.
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This guide covers the question of whether your existing divorce (or proposed divorce) will be recognized in Spain and gives details of how you can obtain divorce in Spain, whether as a resident or as a national.
It also deals, briefly, with the related questions of the financial settlement between the husband and wife and what should happen to the children.
It describes, in particular, how to deal with all of these issues in the area of Andalusia/Andalucía – which contains the Costa del Sol. See a map here. Please note that certain aspects of the law in Spain vary from one "autonomous community" (comunidad autónoma) to another.
This guide does not deal with legal separation or the position of parties who are not married. Nor does it cover the process of annulling a marriage.
See our Guide to Family Law on the Costa del Sol for more information.
Depending upon where you come from, it's likely that somewhere between 10% and 70% of all marriages end in divorce.
Divorce is the second most stressful life event (after the death of your spouse - but before both imprisonment and the death of a close family member).
Whilst there are various steps tobe taken to reduce the stress of divorce, probably the most important factor is the attitude of the legal system to divorce and the way in which your divorce will be dealt with.
Access (visitas): the right of a parent who does not normally look after the child to see the child
Child/children (hijo/s): a child/the children of the marriage or the child/ the children of one of the parties and adopted by the other or a child/ the children adopted by both parties
Custody (custodia): the right of a person to have day-to-day care and control of the child
Financial provision (convenio regulador): arrangements agreed between the parties (and, if necessary, adopted by the court) or arrangements ordered bythe court as to what should happen to the assets of the parties to the marriage and as to ongoing financial support for either of the parties to the marriage or the children
Maintenance (manutención): ongoing financial provision by one of the parties of the divorce to the other or to any children
Petitioner (demandante): the person applying for the divorce
Respondent (demandado): the person against whom the divorce proceedings have been started
Fortunately, Spain is a signatory to the Hague Marriage Convention (the 'Hague Convention on the Celebration and Recognition of the Validity of Marriages') of 1978, which entered into force in 1991. Spain is unusual in adopting this Convention. So far only three other countries (Australia, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) have actually agreed to abide by it (become 'contracting states')! As the Convention only applies to marriages conducted in another contracting state then the practical effect of this is, at the moment, somewhat limited.
However, Spain is also a signatory to the Hague Convention of 1970 (the 'Hague Convention on the Recognition of Divorces and Legal Separations'). Some 20 other nations are parties to this convention. Most of these are in Europe. Importantly, the US is not a party to the Convention.
Under the Hague Convention, a divorce or legal separation will be recognised provided that they have been performed in accordance with the legal process required in the state where the divorce was obtained AND and one of the following applies:
The Respondent was resident in the state where the proceedings were started at the time the proceedings were started. For these purposes the term 'resident' has its normal, common sense meaning. The person must have been associated with that state for a significant amount of time and, where necessary, have the necessary official permission to be resident in that state.
The Petitioner was resident in the state where the proceedings were started at the time when the proceedings were started and had been so resident for at least a year
The Petitioner was resident in the state where the proceedings were started at the time when the proceedings were started and had been so resident for any period of time together with the Respondent
The state where the proceedings were started is the state of which both parties were citizens
The state where the proceedings were started was the state of which the Petitioner was a citizen and where he lived or where he had lived for at least one year in the past two years
The state where the proceedings were started was the state of which the Petitioner was a citizen - and where he was, at the time the proceedings were started, physically present and the state in which the parties had immediately before the presentation of the divorce petition had their joint residence does not provide for divorce
This all sounds a bit complicated but if, as is normally the case, you obtained a divorce in the country in which you and your ex-spouse had been resident for some time your divorce will be recognised.
It will also be recognised in the other circumstances set out in the Convention.
In these circumstances, Spain applies its own law of comity. These are the rules that apply in a country when considering whether to recognise the validity of legal and judicial acts that took place in another country. These rules apply in all sorts of situations other than divorce. For example, the recognition of contracts or debts recognised by the courts in another country.
In Spain, the laws of comity are very generous.
Most countries will respect the legal, judicial and executive acts that took place in another country only if the recognition is reciprocated. Spain presumes that any legal, executive and judicial act that took place in another country and in accordance with the law of that country is valid. The only exception to this is if the act in question is one that it would be repugnant to recognise in the light of the basic and fundamental laws of Spain. For example, if the act is a request for extradition it will not be accepted if the person would face the death penalty. If the act is a judgement of a foreign court relating to defamation (slander or libel) it will not be recognised if the country making the order does not recognise the right to free speech.
However, when it comes to the question of divorce the position in practise is that any divorce legally valid in the country where the divorce was granted will be recognised as valid in Spain.
Yes. In most cases you will be able to do so.
You will notbe able to apply for a divorce on the Costa del Sol until you are resident in Spain. This means that divorce is not open to visitors.
If you hold a Spanish residence permit you will be able to apply for a divorce on the Costa del Sol. Of course, you will have to show that you have grounds for divorce under the law of Spain.
Note that it is only you who has to be resident in Spain for this period. It is not necessary that your spouse has ever been resident in Spain.
Also note there may be other places where you could start divorce proceedings. For example, you could normally start divorce proceedings in the country in which your spouse was resident. See our guides to getting a divorce in other countries for more information.
f you are a citizen of Spain you will follow exactly the same procedure and have exactly the same rights as a person who is merely officially resident in Spain.
The only legal requirement to apply for divorce is being married for longer than three months.
Current legislation means that you don't need any specific grounds for getting a divorce.
Divorce applications can be filed even if the parties have not investigated reconciliation.
However, itis very common that both parties try to achieve a mutual agreement about Financial Provision. This is called Divorcio de Mutuo Acuerdo.
The parties normally discuss and aim to achieve an agreement on the following points:
If no agreement is possible, either of the parties could initiate a court case.
The application for divorce is filed at the Court of First Instance (Juzgado de Primera Instancia) local to the address of residency of the couple/petitioner.
For this reason, it is necessary and obligatory to engage lawyers to represent them in the course of the divorce proceedings.
The lawyer will then file the application on the Petitioner's behalf.
A copy of the application for divorce is served by the Court to the Respondent.
This is done via a jurist professional called the Procurador who conveys communications between lawyers and the Court.
About four weeks after the Court has received acknowledgement that the application hasbeen received by the Respondent there will be a preliminary hearing of the case to deal with the following questions:
The arrangements concerning financial provision and the children are then finalised (see below).
The Court reviews all of the arrangements relating to the divorce and, if the arrangements as to financial provision and the children are satisfactory, it grants a certificate of divorce.
If the parties agree to the divorce - i.e. if the divorce is not contested - no formal hearing is required to satisfy the Court.
If the divorce is contested then there will be a hearing at which witnesses will be called to prove the allegations made.
The official certificate of divorce can then be filed (using official copies obtained from the Courts) with the financial order made by the court and used by the Land Registry, banks, the Registry of Shares etc to change the ownership of any assets affected by the divorce.
If those assets are located outside Spain then a special version of the certificate and order are obtained, officially translated into the necessary language and carrying a certificate of the court explaining the nature of the document.
Under the law of Spain the interests of the children are the Court's primary concern when dealing with any divorce.
The Court must ensure that, as far as possible, they are financially secure and not financially disadvantaged by the divorce. Thus, for example, wherever possible and unless the effect would be to reduce one or both parents to poverty, it will seek to allow the children to continue with their current education and to remain in their current home.
In order to do this the Court will consider the issues below.
If there is agreement by the parties on these issues the Court will consider whether the agreement appears to be fair and reasonable when looked at from the perspective of the children.
Any decision that affect the interests of the children will be reviewed by the Public Prosecutor (Fiscal), who protects the interests of the children during the divorce process.
If there is no agreement between the parties or if it feels that that agreement is unreasonable, the Court will make such orders as it sees fit:
Direction: it is normal for all of the major decisions regarding the child's life to be made by the parents together, even after divorce. These include the type of schooling to be received, major healthcare decisions, religious observance, the country of residence etc. In extraordinary cases where this is not possible the Court will give this responsibility to only one of the parents.
Residence: with which parent will the child reside on a day-to-day basis. This is the parent who will also have the responsibility for making the day-to-day decisions regarding the child's life.
Access/visitation: what arrangements should be made for the parent with whom the child does not live to see the child?. These arrangements are normally expressed in specific terms.
The home: where will the child live? Where possible, this should be the former matrimonial home but, if that is not possible, the Court will want to scrutinize details of the proposed arrangement.
Financial provision: who should pay to look after the child, and how much? If both parents are working it is common for each to be ordered to contribute a certain amount to the expenses of the child. These payments are made into a special bank account against which the parent with whom the child resides can draw where necessary. The amount they can withdraw is specified by the Court and increases with inflation. It can be varied on a later application to the Court, as can the amount of the financial contribution to be made by each of the parents.
Is it necessary for the Court to appoint a social worker to have oversight of the child? Unless there are difficult family circumstances or a very tense relationship between the parents, this is rare.
This will depend on the matrimonial regime of your country, or the pre-nuptial agreement signed by the couple, if there is any. When you divorce, after the needs ofthe children are taken into account the distribution of assets will be taken care of.
If,asis often the case, the Court orders that the children should remain in the former matrimonial home or some substitute for it until they reach the age of 18 then the division of the couple's assets will bein two phases: immediate and once the children reach the age of 18.
If there are no children, then you can expect an order that all of the assets are valued and then divided between the parties, depending on the matrimonial regime. In case of separate assets, each one will get what is his or hers. In case of joint assets, everything must be split on equal shares. The parties will generally agree who gets what during a mediation process or via their lawyers. If they cannot agree then the Court shall decide who gets what, or even decide that everything should be sold and the proceeds of sale divided equally between the parties. This encourages agreement as such an arrangement is usually financially disastrous.
Both parents are obliged to pay for the matrimonial home – for example, in case there is a mortgage on it. The former matrimonial home will then be sold once the children no longer need it and its value split between the parties.
However, any form of order is possible, based on the principle that the assets of the couple belong to them equally and subject to the overriding concern to make proper arrangements for the children.
Either spouse may, in appropriate circumstances, apply for ongoing support from the other. This is only applicable when there is financial unbalance between the situation before the marriage, and the situation in which the spouses are left after the divorce. This normally happens when one of them leaves work and stays at home to take care of the family.
It doesn't. See our Guide to Family Law on the Costa del Sol for details.
If they are not marries, it doesn't. If they are married then the same rules apply.
This depends upon whether the divorce is contested.
If it is not contested, and it is by mutual agreement, the whole process is likely to cost less than €1,500.
If it is contested, it can cost more than double, but this depends upon the complexity of the divorce.
In a very complex and vicious divorce, it can cost an awful lot of money!
Have you had experience with divorce in Spain? Tell us about it and share your story by emailing email@example.com.
The main features of Spanish divorce law are the absolute preoccupation with protecting the rights of any children and the complete insistence that there should be adequate financial provision before any divorce is agreed. Beyond that, the process will depend on complexity of the circumstances, and the capacity of the parties to reach an amicable agreement.
|Family Law on the Costa del Sol
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This guide covers what to do if your child or children (usually under 18, unless the child has emancipated) are abducted - taken to Spain without your consent and without legal authority.
|The Legal System on the Costa del Sol
This guide explains, briefly, the legal system in Spain and, by extension, in the Costa del Sol. It covers the criminal legal system, the civil legal system, the family law legal system, the administrative law system, the way laws are made and the legal services available in Spain.
We hope you have found this guide useful. If you need any further help, please contact us.Manzanares Abogados S.L. 1 June 2016