This guide was written by Francine Carrel, Assistant Editor of Guides.Global (email@example.com).
It was written on 30 January 2017. The law and practice in Bulgaria change all the time. Our guides are updated as frequently as possible - typically every three years - but may be out of date.
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This guide looks at the demographics and freedom of religion in Bulgaria, as well as taking a closer look at the main religions of the country.
Bulgaria, despite the post-war communists' oppression of religion, is largely a country of faith. Only an estimated one fifth of the population are atheists.
Unlike many European countries, Bulgaria is seeing a resurgence in religious faith. Many churches have recently been restored or rebuilt, and alters and frescoes are being polished up.
The Bulgarian constitution, as well as supplemental laws, protect the freedom of religion in Bulgaria - although the constitution also names Eastern Orthodoxy as the "traditional" religion of the country, and offers it certain advantages (for example, not having to register with the government).
Although the government has, as a rule, respected the religious freedom of its citizens, there have definitely been problems for minority religions.
Jehovah's Witnesses and Muslims, for example, have repeatedly highlighted issues with being granted permits for the construction of religious buildings. On a societal level, there have been rising reports of discriminatory action against the Jewish and Muslim communities, with synagogues and mosques being vandalised.
The statistics below are from the 2011 census in Bulgaria. The question on religion was not a compulsory one. The numbers are the percentages of the total population, not the percentage of the people who answered.
Even so, it is evident that Bulgaria is an Eastern Orthodox country. Some calculations have 84% of the population as Orthodox Christians.
Judaism is a tiny minority in Bulgaria, mainly because of the mass exodus to Israel after World War II. The Jewish population was nearly 48,565 in 1934. By 1956 it was 6,027. In 2011 the Jewish population was calculated as 1,162.
Eastern Orthodoxy was adopted as the state religion of Bulgaria in 864AD (CE). It is, by far, the dominant religion in Bulgaria, although it is no longer a state religion.
Eastern Orthodoxy is separate from Greek, Russian and all the other Orthodox churches. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church has been an independent church since 927AD. It has around 7million members - mostly in Bulgaria, with some in other European countries and even in America and Australia.
There are a lot of Orthodox churches in Bulgaria - even tiny villages will often have a church. To get an idea, look at the embedded list of churches in Sofia.List of churches in Sofia - Wikipedia
The traditional Christian holidays are celebrated in Bulgaria (see our Guide to Public Holidays in Bulgaria, as well as the Catholic 'name days': if someone is named after a saint, they can expect a celebration on the saint's day as well as on their birthday!
According to the census above, there were 577,139 Muslims in Bulgaria in 2011.
The Muslim population is made up mainly of Turks ( 444,434 - 420,816 Sunni and 21,610 Shi'a), Bulgarians (67,350) and Roma/Gypsies (42,201). Muslim Bulgarians are thought to be descendents of Slavs who were converted to Islam during the Ottoman rule.
Bulgaria has the highest number of mosques per capita in Europe, totalling over 1200. The largest mosque in Bulgaria is the Tumbul Mosque in Shumen, built in 1744.
Bulgaria passed a 'burqa and niqab ban' in 2016, prohibiting women from wearing the religious garments in public. Women who break the rules can face fines of up to 1,500 levs (around €760) and the suspension of social security benefits.
What are your experiences with religion in Bulgaria? Share your opinions by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org.
Christianity rules in Bulgaria - and Orthodoxy in particular.
Islam is the only minority faith with any large presence, and the anti-Islamic sentiment being seen across much of Europe is, sadly, also present in Bulgaria. Most Bulgarians are tolerant and welcoming but the vocal minority are getting louder.
|Public Holidays in Bulgaria
National holidays celebrated in Bulgaria.
|Bulgaria Country Guide
Essential facts and figures about Bulgaria
A history of various faiths in Bulgaria
|Religion in Bulgaria after 1989: historical and sociocultural aspects
Academic journal - read online for free
I hope you have found this guide useful. If you need any further help, please contact me.Francine Carrel 30 January 2017
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